Swimming Escherichia coli
Most of these movies were made of fluorescently-labeled cells with strobed laser illumination, using an ordinary CCD camera at 60 Hz, as described by Turner et al. (2000). However, the playback speeds vary. Others were made of fluorescently labeled cells at 500 Hz, without the strobe. Movies in phase contrast used tungsten-halogen illumination and an ordinary CCD camera. These cells where grown on T-broth. They are about 1 µm in diameter by 2 µm long and swim at about 30 µm/s. For more information, see the project .
Movies, cells in fluorescence
Movies, cells in phase contrast
Turner, L., Ryu, W.S. and Berg, H.C. Real-time imaging of fluorescent flagellar filaments. J. Bacteriol. 182, 2793-2801 (2000).