Movies of swimming motility

Escherichia coli

Rhodobacter sphaeroides

Synechococcus


Movies of swarming motility

Escherichia coli swarm

Salmonella typhmurium swarm

Serratia marcescens swarm


Movies of gliding motility

Cytophaga

Mycoplasma mobile

Flavobacterium johnsoniae


Movies of Twitching motility

Pseudomonas aeruginosa


Other movies

Tethered bacteria

Escherichia coli patterns

Carpets and microchannels

Miscellaneous movies

Marvels of Bacterial Behavior - History & Physics of Bacterial Motion



Rowland Institute         Harvard University
     
 

Swarming Serratia marcescens

When grown on soft agar (0.7-0.8%) and a rich medium, cells of Serratia marcescens (and other Gram-negative bacteria) elongate, produce more flagella, and move over the surface of the agar in a coordinated manner. Serrawettin, a lipopeptide, appears to be important as a wetting agent. Swarming is more vigorous than in Salmonella, and cells at the very edge of the swarm are more active.

The first video, made in phase contrast, shows spreading near the edge of a swarm. The second video shows that cells removed from a swarm swim vigorously.


Movies

Serratia swarming

Serratia swimming


References

Harshey, R. M. Bees aren't the only ones: swarming in Gram-negative bacteria. Mol. Microbiol. 13, 389-394 (1994).

We would like to thank Rasika Harshey for her help in creating these movies.