Howard Berg

Karen Fahrner

Basarab Gabriel Hosu

Thibault Roland

Abhishek Shrivastava

Linda Turner Stern

Navish Wadhwa


Rowland Institute         Harvard University
     
 

Howard C. Berg

Publications

Books

Berg, H.C., Random Walks in Biology. (Princeton, Princeton, 1983). Expanded edition, 1993.

Berg, H.C., E. coli in Motion. (Springer-Verlag, NY, 2004).

Articles

On problems in atomic physics:
On the separation of macromolecules according to mass:
On the structure of cell membranes:
On the motile behavior of microorganisms:

On problems in atomic physics:

1. Berg, H.C. and Kleppner, D. Storage technique for atomic hydrogen. Rev. Sci. Instr. 33, 248-249 (1962).

2. Berg, H.C. Spin relaxation of atoms in molecular buffer gases. J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1851 (1965).

3. Berg, H.C. Amplitude and decay rate analysis of low level exponentially decaying radio-frequency signals. Rev. Sci. Instr. 36, 330-334 (1965).

4. Berg, H.C. Spin exchange and surface relaxation in the atomic hydrogen maser. Phys. Rev. 137, A1621-A1634 (1965).

5. Kleppner, D., Berg, H.C., Crampton, S.B., Ramsey, N.F., Vessot, R.F.C., Peters, H.E. and Vanier, J. Hydrogen maser principles and techniques. Phys. Rev. 138, A972-A983 (1965).

6. Crampton, S.B., Berg, H.C., Robinson, H.G. and Ramsey, N.F. Determination of the quadropole coupling constant in the N 14 atomic ground state. Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 195-197 (1970).

On the separation of macromolecules according to mass:

7. Berg, H.C. and Purcell, E.M. A method for separating according to mass a mixture of macromolecules or small particles suspended in a fluid, I. Theory. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58, 862-869 (1967).

8. Berg, H.C., Purcell, E.M. and Stewart, W.W. ..., II. Experiments in a gravitational field. ibid, pp. 1286-1291.

9. Berg, H.C. and Purcell, E.M. ..., III. Experiments in a centrifugal field. ibid, pp. 1821-1828.

10. Purcell, E.M. and Berg, H.C. Particle separator. U.S. Patent 3,523,610 (1970).

11. Barcilon, V. and Berg, H.C. Forced axial flow between rotating concentric cylinders. J. Fluid Mech. 47, 469-479 (1971). 

On the structure of cell membranes:

12. Berg, H.C., Diamond, J.M. and Marfey, P.S. Erythrocyte membrane: Chemical modification. Science 150, 64-67 (1965).

13. Berg, H.C. Membrane dipole potentials. Biophys. J. 8, 1051-1053 (1968).

14. Berg, H.C. Sulfanilic acid diazonium salt: A label for the outside of the human erythrocyte membrane. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 183, 65-78 (1969).

15. Bender, W.W., Garan, H. and Berg, H.C. Proteins of the human erythrocyte membrane as modified by pronase. J. Mol. Biol. 58, 783-797 (1971).

16. Whiteley, N.M. and Berg, H.C. Amidination of the outer and inner surfaces of the human erythrocyte membrane. J. Mol. Biol. 87, 541-561 (1974).

17. Berg, H.C. and Hirsh, D. Synthesis of diazotized ( 35 S)sulfanilic acid of high specific activity: A label for the outer surface of cell membranes. Anal. Biochem. 66, 629-631 (1975).

18. Wennogle, L.P. and Berg, H.C. Covalent attachment of polydeoxythymidylic acid to human erythrocytes. J. Mol. Biol. 123, 471-483 (1978).

19. Wennogle, L.P. and Berg, H.C. Isolation of cell surface proteins by hybridization. J. Mol. Biol. 124, 689-699 (1978).

On the motile behavior of microorganisms: 1971 - 1975

20. Berg, H.C. How to track bacteria. Rev. Sci. Instr. 42, 868-871 (1971).

21. Futrelle, R.P. and Berg, H.C. Specification of gradients used for studies of chemotaxis. Nature 239, 517-518 (1972).

22. Berg, H.C. and Brown, D.A. Chemotaxis in Escherichia coli analysed by three-dimensional tracking. Nature 239, 500-504 (1972).

23. Berg, H.C. and Anderson, R.A. Bacteria swim by rotating their flagellar filaments. Nature 245, 380-384 (1973).

24. Brown, D.A. and Berg, H.C. Temporal stimulation of chemotaxis in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 1388-1392 (1974).

25. Berg, H.C. Dynamic properties of bacterial flagellar motors. Nature 249, 77-79 (1974).

26. Berg, H.C. and Brown, D.A. Chemotaxis in Escherichia coli analyzed by three-dimensional tracking. Addendum. Antibiotics and Chemotherapy 19, 55-78 (1974).

27. Berg, H.C. Flagellar control of bacterial motion. In Functional Linkage in Biomolecular Systems, ed. Schmitt, F.O., Schneider, D.M. and Crothers, D.M. (Raven Press, New York, 1975) pp. 290-296.

28. Berg, H.C. Flagellar rotation. Proceedings of the First Intersectional Congress of the IAMS, Vol. 1 (Science Council of Japan, Tokyo) 1975, pp. 665-673.

29. Berg, H.C. Bacterial behaviour. Nature 254, 389-392 (1975).

30. Berg, H.C. Chemotaxis in bacteria. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 4, 119-136 (1975).

31. Berg, H.C. How bacteria swim. Sci. Am. 233 (2), 36-44 (1975).

32. Berg, H.C. and Tedesco, P.M. Transient response to chemotactic stimuli in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 72, 3235-3239 (1975).

33. Berg, H.C. Bacterial movement. In Swimming and Flying in Nature, Vol. 1, ed. Wu, T.Y.-T., Brokaw, C.J. and Brennen, C. (Plenum, New York, 1975) pp. 1-11. 

On the motile behavior of microorganisms: 1976 - 1980

34. Berg, H.C. How spirochetes may swim. J. Theor. Biol. 56, 269-273 (1976).

35. Berg, H.C. Does the flagellar rotary motor step? In Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Vol. 3: Cell Motility, ed. Goldman, R., Pollard, T. and Rosenbaum, J. (Cold Spring Harbor, 1976) pp. A47-A56.

36. Berg, H.C. Rotary engines in biology. In New Directions in Kinematics Research, ed. Roth, B. (Proceedings of NSF Workshop, Stanford, August 23, 1976) pp. 101-103.

37. Manson, M.D., Tedesco, P., Berg, H.C., Harold, F.M. and van der Drift, C. A protonmotive force drives bacterial flagella. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74, 3060-3064 (1977).

38. Berg, H.C. and Purcell, E.M. Physics of chemoreception. Biophys. J. 20, 193-219 (1977).

39. Berg, H.C., Bromley, D.B. and Charon, N.W. Leptospiral motility. Symp. Soc. Gen. Microbiol. 28, 285-294 (1978).

40. Berg, H.C. The tracking microscope. Adv. Opt. Elect. Microsc. 7, 1-15 (1978).

41. Berg, H.C. and Turner, L. Movement of microorganisms in viscous environments. Nature 278, 349-351 (1979).

42. Manson, M.D., Tedesco, P.M. and Berg, H.C. Energetics of flagellar rotation in bacteria. J. Mol. Biol. 138, 541-561 (1980).

43. Berg, H.C. Dynamics and energetics of the bacterial rotary motor. In Protein dynamics and energy transduction, ed. Ishiwata, S.-I. (Taniguchi Foundation, 1980) pp. 312-344.

44. Berg, H.C. Chemotaxis in bacteria: A beginner's guide to the literature. Lect. Notes. Biomath. 38, 377-378 (1980).

On the motile behavior of microorganisms: 1981 - 1985

45. Berg, H.C., Manson, M.D. and Conley, M.P. Dynamics and energetics of flagellar rotation in bacteria. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 35, 1-31 (1982).

46. Segall, J.E., Manson, M.D. and Berg, H.C. Signal processing times in bacterial chemotaxis. Nature 296, 855-857 (1982).

47. Lapidus, I.R. and Berg, H.C. Gliding motility of Cytophaga sp. strain U67. J. Bacteriol. 151, 384-398 (1982).

48. Block, S.M., Segall, J.E. and Berg, H.C. Impulse responses in bacterial chemotaxis. Cell 31, 215-226 (1982).

49. Smyth, R.D. and Berg, H.C. Change in flagellar beat frequency of Chlamydomonas in response to light. Cell Motility Suppl. 1, 211-215 (1982).

50. Khan, S. and Berg, H.C. Isotope and thermal effects in chemiosmotic coupling to the flagellar motor of Streptococcus. Cell 32, 913-919 (1983).

51. Khan, S. and Berg, H.C. Isotope and thermal effects in chemiosmotic coupling to the membrane ATPase of Streptococcus. J. Biol. Chem. 258, 6709-6712 (1983).

52. Block, S.M., Segall, J.E. and Berg, H.C. Adaptation kinetics in bacterial chemotaxis. J. Bacteriol. 154, 312-323 (1983).

53. Berg, H.C. and Khan, S. A model for the flagellar rotary motor. In Mobility and Recognition in Cell Biology, ed. Sund, H. and Veeger, C. (deGruyter, Berlin, 1983) pp. 485-497.

54. Ishihara, A., Segall, J.E., Block, S.M. and Berg, H.C. Coordination of flagella on filamentous cells of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 155, 228-237 (1983).

55. Block, S.M. and Berg, H.C. Successive incorporation of force-generating units in the bacterial rotary motor. Nature 309, 470-472 (1984).

56. Conley, M.P. and Berg, H.C. Chemical modification of Streptococcus flagellar motors. J. Bacteriol. 158, 832-843 (1984).

57. Berg, H.C. and Block, S.M. A miniature flow cell designed for rapid exchange of media under high-power microscope objectives. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130, 2915-2920 (1984).

58. Berg, H.C. Bacterial flagellar rotation and its chemotactic control. In Information and Energy Transduction in Biological Membranes, ed. Bolis, C.L., Helmreich, E.J.M. and Passow, H. (Liss, New York, 1984) pp. 215-219.

59. Berg, H.C. Bovine-like rhodopsin in algae. Nature 311, 702 (1984).

60. Segall, J.E, Ishihara, A. and Berg, H.C. Chemotactic signaling in filamentous cells of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 161, 51-59 (1985).

61. Krikos, A., Conley, M.P., Boyd, A., Berg, H.C. and Simon, M.I. Chimeric chemosensory transducers in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 1326-1330 (1985).

62. Berg, H. C. Physics of bacterial chemotaxis. In Sensory Perception and Transduction in Aneural Organisms, ed. Colombetti, G., Lenci, F. and Song, P.S. (Plenum, New York, 1985) pp. 19-30.

63. Berg, H.C. Flagellar Motility. In Roche Seminars on Bacteria: Number 1 in a Series. Properties, Problems and Therapeutic Progress, ed. Moellering, R.C. (Hoffman-LaRoche, Nutley, N.J., 1985), pp. 1-23.

64. Khan, S. Meister, M. and Berg, H.C. Constraints on flagellar rotation. J. Mol. Biol. 184, 645-656 (1985).

On the motile behavior of microorganisms: 1986 - 1990

65. Berg, H.C. Chemotaxis gene unveiled. Nature 321, 200-201 (1986).

66. Segall, J.E., Block, S.M. and Berg, H.C. Temporal comparisons in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 8987-8991 (1986).

67. Lowe, G., Meister, M. and Berg, H.C. Rapid rotation of flagellar bundles in swimming bacteria. Nature 325, 637-640 (1987).

68. Shimada, K. and Berg, H.C. Response of the flagellar rotary motor to abrupt changes in extracellular pH. J. Mol. Biol. 193, 585-589 (1987).

69. Berg, H.C., Block, S.M., Conley, M.P., Nathan, A.R., Power, J.N. and Wolfe, A.J. Computerized video analysis of tethered bacteria. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 418-423 (1987).

70. Wolfe, A.J., Conley, M.P., Kramer, T.J. and Berg, H.C. Reconstitution of signaling in bacterial chemotaxis. J. Bacteriol. 169, 1878-1885 (1987).

71. Meister, M., Lowe, G. and Berg, H.C. The proton flux through the bacterial flagellar motor. Cell 49, 643-650 (1987).

72. Meister, M. and Berg, H.C. The stall torque of the bacterial flagellar motor. Biophys. J. 52, 413-419 (1987).

73. Meyer, P.W., Matus, I.J. and Berg, H.C. Avoidance of Phycomyces in a controlled environment. Biophys. J. 51, 425-437 (1987).

74. Berg, H.C. A physicist looks at bacterial chemotaxis. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 53, 1-9 (1988).

75. Wolfe, A.J., Conley, M.P. and Berg, H.C. Acetyladenylate plays a role in controlling the direction of flagellar rotation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 6711-6715 (1988).

76. Blair, D.F. and Berg, H.C. Restoration of torque in defective flagellar motors. Science 242, 1678-1681 (1988).

77. Berg, H.C. Biological applications of scanning tunneling microscopy. Physics Today 41(1), S18-S19 (1989).

78. Block, S.M., Blair, D.F. and Berg, H.C. Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers. Nature 338, 514-517 (1989).

79. Meister, M., Caplan, S.R. and Berg, H.C. Dynamics of a tightly coupled mechanism for flagellar rotation. Biophys. J. 55, 905-914 (1989).

80. Conley, M.P., Wolfe, A.J., Blair, D.F. and Berg, H.C. Both CheA and CheW are required for reconstitution of chemotactic signaling in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 171, 5190-5193 (1989).

81. Wolfe, A.J. and Berg, H.C. Migration of bacteria in semisolid agar. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 6973-6977 (1989).

82. Blair, D.F. and Berg, H.C. The MotA protein of Escherichia coli is a proton-conducting component of the flagellar motor. Cell 60, 439-449 (1990).

83. Berg, H.C. Physical constraints on microbial behavior: How you act if you are very small. J. Chem. Ecol. 16, 119-120 (1990).

84. Berg, H.C. Bacterial microprocessing. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 55, 539-545 (1990).

85. Berg, H.C. and Turner, L. Chemotaxis of bacteria in glass capillary arrays. Biophys J. 58, 919-930 (1990).

86. Schnitzer, M.J., Block, S.M., Berg, H.C. and Purcell, E.M. Strategies for chemotaxis. Symp. Soc. Gen. Microbiol. 46, 15-34 (1990). 

On the motile behavior of microorganisms: 1991- 1995

87. Block, S.M., Fahrner, K.A. and Berg, H.C. Visualization of bacterial flagella by video-enhanced light microscopy. J. Bacteriol. 173, 933-936 (1991).

88. Budrene, E.O. and Berg, H.C. Complex patterns formed by motile cells of Escherichia coli. Nature 349, 630-633 (1991).

89. Block, S.M., Blair, D.F. and Berg, H.C. Compliance of bacterial polyhooks measured with optical tweezers. Cytometry 12, 492-496 (1991).

90. Blair, D.F. and Berg, H.C. Mutants in the MotA protein of Escherichia coli reveal domains critical for proton conduction. J. Mol. Biol. 221, 1433-1442 (1991).

91. Blair, D.F., Kim, D.Y. and Berg, H.C. Mutant MotB proteins in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 173, 4049-4055 (1991).

92. Berg, H.C. Bacterial motility: Handedness and symmetry. Ciba Found. Symp. 162, 58-72 (1991).

93. Budrene, E.O. and Berg, H.C. Pattern formation by bacteria. Current Biology 1, 83 (1991).

94. Stolz, B. and Berg, H.C. Evidence for interactions between MotA and MotB, torque generating elements of the flagellar motor of Eschericia coli. J. Bacteriol. 173, 7033-7037 (1991).

95. Berg, H.C. and Turner, L. Selection of motile nonchemotactic mutants of Escherichia coli by field-flow fractionation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 8145-8148 (1991).

96. Berg, H.C. Studies of motile bacteria. In Physics News in 1991, ed. Schewe, P.F. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1991).

97. Berg, H.C. Response of Escherichia coli to novel gradients. In Sensory Transduction, Proc. 45th Symp. Soc. Gen. Physiol., Chpt. 13, pp. 220-223 (Rockefeller Univ. Press, 1992).

98. Dailey, F.E. and Berg, H.C. Mutants in disulfide bond formation that disrupt flagellar assembly. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 90, 1043-1047 (1993).

99. Dailey, F.E. and Berg, H.C. Change in direction of flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli mediated by acetate kinase. J. Bacteriol. 175, 3236-3239 (1993).

100. Hazelbauer, G.L., Berg, H.C. and Matsumura, P. Bacterial motility and signal transduction. Cell 73, 15-22 (1993).

101. Berg, H.C. and Turner, L. Torque generated by the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli. Biophys. J. 65, 2201-2216 (1993).

102. Frauenfelder, H. and Berg, H.C. Physics and Biology. Physics Today 47 (2), 20-21 (1994).

103. Fahrner, K.A., Block, S.M., Krishnaswamy, S., Parkinson, J.S. and Berg, H.C. A mutant hook-associated protein (HAP3) facilitates torsionally-induced transformations of the flagellar filament of Escherichia coli. J. Mol. Biol. 238, 173-186 (1994).

104. Conley, M.P., Berg, H.C., Tawa, P., Stewart, R.C., Ellefson, D.D. and Wolfe, A.J. pH dependence of CheA autophosphorylation in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 176, 3870-3877 (1994).

105. Berg, H.C. and Turner, L. Cells of Escherichia coli swim either end forward. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 477-479 (1995).

106. Berg, H.C. Torque generation by the flagellar rotary motor. Biophys. J. 68, 163s-167s (1995).

107. Samuel, A.D.T. and Berg, H.C. Fluctuation analysis of rotational speeds of the bacterial flagellar motor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 3502-3506 (1995).

108. Woodward, D.E., Tyson, R., Myerscough, M.R., Murray, J.D., Budrene, E.O. and Berg, H.C. Spatio-temporal patterns generated by Salmonella typhimurium. Biophys. J. 68, 2181-2189 (1995).

109. Fung, D.C. and Berg, H.C. Powering the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli with an external voltage source. Nature 375, 809-812 (1995).

110. Frymier, P.D., Ford, R.M., Berg, H.C. and Cummings, P.T. Three-dimensional tracking of motile bacteria near a solid planar surface. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 6195-6199 (1995).

111. Berry, R.M., Turner, L. and Berg, H.C. Mechanical limits of flagellar motors probed by electrorotation. Biophys, J. 69, 280-286 (1995).

112. Budrene, E.O. and Berg, H.C. Dynamics of formation of symmetric patterns by chemotactic bacteria. Nature 376, 49-53 (1995).

113. Pitta, T.P. and Berg, H.C. Self-electrophoresis is not the mechanism for motility in swimming cyanobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 177, 5701-5703 (1995). 

On the motile behavior of microorganisms: 1996 - 2000

114. Marykwas, D.L., Schmidt, S.A., and Berg, H.C. Interacting components of the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli revealed by the two-hybrid system in yeast. J. Mol. Biol. 256, 564-576 (1996).

115. Marykwas, D.L., and Berg, H.C. A mutational analysis of the interaction between FliG and FliM, two components of the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 178, 1289-1294 (1996).

116. Berg, H.C. Touring machines. Curr. Biol. 6, 624 (1996).

117. Samuel, A.D.T. and Berg, H.C. Torque generating units of the bacterial flagellar motor step independently. Biophys. J. 71, 918-923 (1996).

118. Ehlers, K.M., Samuel, A.D.T. , Berg, H.C. and Montgomery, R. Do cyanobacteria swim using traveling surface waves? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 8340-8343 (1996).

119. Berg, H.C. Symmetries in bacterial motility. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 14225-14228 (1996).

120. Turner, L., Caplan, S.R. and Berg, H.C. Temperature induced switching of the bacterial flagellar motor. Biophys. J. 71, 2227-2233 (1996).

121. Berry, R.M. and Berg, H.C. Torque generated by the bacterial flagellar motor close to stall. Biophys. J. 71, 3501-3510 (1996).

122. Pitta, T.P., Sherwood, E.E., Kobel, A.M. and Berg, H.C. Calcium is required for swimming by the nonflagellated cyanobacterim Synechococcus strain WH8113. J. Bacteriol. 179, 2524-2528 (1997).

123. Samuel, A.D.T. and Berg, H.C. Statistical kinetics of the bacterial flagellar motor. Phys. Rev. E 55, 7801-7804 (1997).

124. Berry, R.M. and Berg, H.C. Absence of a barrier to backwards rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor demonstrated with optical tweezers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 14433-14437 (1997).

125. Scharf, B.E., Fahrner, K.A., Turner, L. and Berg, H.C. Control of direction of flagellar rotation in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 201-206 (1998).

126. Berg, H.C. Comments on 'The use of flash photolysis for ... analysis of bacterial chemotactic behaviour ...' Mol Microbiol 25, 295-302 (1997). Mol. Microbiol. 27, 507-508 (1998).

 127. Scharf, B.E., Fahrner, K.A. and Berg, H.C. CheZ has no effect on flagellar motors activated by CheY13DK106YW. J. Bacteriol. 180, 5123-5128 (1998).

128. Berg, H.C. Keeping up with the F1-ATPase. Nature 394, 324-325 (1998).

129. Berry, R.M. and Berg, H.C. Torque generated by the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli while driven backward. Biophys. J. 76, 580-587 (1999).

130. Turner, L., Samuel, A.D.T., Stern, A.S., and Berg, H.C. Temperature dependence of switching of the bacterial flagellar motor by the protein CheY13DK106YW. Biophys. J. 77, 597-603 (1999).

131. Samuel, A.D.T., Pitta, T.P., Ryu, W.S., Danese, P.N., Leung, E.C.W. and Berg, H.C. Flagellar determinants of bacterial sensitivity to X-phage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 9863-9866 (1999).

132. Berg, H.C. Motile behavior of bacteria. Physics Today 53 (1), 24-29 (2000).

133. Berg, H.C. Constraints on models for the flagellar rotary motor. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B 355, 491-501 (2000).

134. Ryu, W.S., Berry, R.M. and Berg, H.C. Torque-generating units of the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli have a high duty ratio. Nature 403, 444-447 (2000).

135. Chen, X. and Berg, H.C. Torque-speed relationship of the flagellar rotary motor. Biophys J. 78, 1036-1041 (2000).

136. Turner, L., Ryu, W.S. and Berg, H.C. Real-time imaging of fluorescent flagellar filaments. J. Bacteriol. 182, 2793-2801 (2000).

137. Chen, X. and Berg, H.C. Solvent-isotope and pH effects on flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli. Biophys. J. 78, 2280-2284 (2000).

138. Sourjik, V., and Berg, H.C. Location of components of the chemotaxis machinery of Escherichia coli using fluorescent-protein fusions. Molec. Microbiol. 37, 740-751 (2000).

On the motile behavior of microorganisms: 2001 - 2005

139. Skerker, J.M. and Berg, H.C. Direct observation of extension and retraction of type IV pili. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98, 6901-6904 (2001).

140. Miyata, M., Ryu, W.S. and Berg, H.C. Force and velocity of Mycoplasma mobile gliding. J. Bacteriol. 184, 1827-1831 (2002).

141. Sourjik, V. and Berg, H.C. Receptor sensitivity in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 123-127 (2002).

142. Berg, H.C. How Spiroplasma might swim. J. Bacteriol. 184, 2063-2064 (2002).

143. Sourjik, V. and Berg, H.C. Binding of the Escherichia coli response regulator CheY to its target measured in vivo by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 12669-12674 (2002).

144. Berg, H.C. The rotary motor of bacterial flagella. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72, 19-54 (2003).

145. Berg, H.C. The bacterial rotary motor. In The Enzymes, 3rd Ed., Vol. 23 (Academic, 2003) pp. 143-202.

146. Fahrner, K.A., Ryu, W.S. and Berg, H.C. Bacterial flagellar switching under load. Nature 423, 938 (2003).

147. Gabel, C.V., and Berg, H.C. The speed of the flagellar rotary motor of Escherichia coli varies linearly with protonmotive force. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 8748-8751 (2003).

148. Jaffe, J.D., Berg, H.C. and Church, G.M. Proteogenomic mapping as a complementary method to perform genome annotation. Proteomics 4, 59-77 (2004).

149. Sourjik, V. and Berg, H.C. Functional interactions between receptors in bacterial chemotaxis. Nature 428, 437-441 (2004).

150. Darnton, N., Turner, L., Breuer, K. and Berg, H.C. Moving fluid with bacterial carpets. Biophys J 86, 1863-1870 (2004).

151. Jaffe, J.D., Miyata, M. and Berg, H.C. Energetics of gliding motility in Mycoplasma mobile. J. Bacteriol. 186, 4254-4261 (2004).

152. Jaffe J.D., Stange-Thomann N., Smith C., DeCaprio D., Fisher S., Butler J., Calvo S., Elkins T., FitzGerald M.G., Hafez N., Kodira C.D., Major J., Wang S., Wilkinson J., Nicol R., Nusbaum C., Birren B., Berg H.C. and Church G.M. The complete genome and proteome of Mycoplasma mobile. Genome Res. 14, 1447-1461 (2004).

153. Liberman, L., Berg, H.C. and Sourjik, V. Effect of chemoreceptor modification on assembly and activity of the receptor-kinase complex in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 186, 6643-6646 (2004).

154. Vaknin, A. and Berg, H.C. Single-cell FRET imaging of phosphatase activity in the Escherichia coli chemotaxis system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 17072-17077 (2004).

155. DiLuzio, W.R., Turner, L., Mayer, M., Garstecki, P., Weibel, D.B., Berg, H.C. and Whitesides, G.M. Escherichia coli swim on the right-hand side. Nature 435, 1271-1274 (2005).

156. Bates, D., Epstein, J., Boyle, E., Fahrner, K., Berg, H. and Kleckner, N. The Escherichia coli baby cell column: a novel cell synchronization method provides new insight into the bacterial cell cycle. Molec. Microbiol. 57, 380-391 (2005).

157. Berg, H.C. Q&A Howard Berg. Curr. Biol. 15, R189-R190 (2005).

158. Berg, H.C. Swarming motility: it better be wet. Curr. Biol. 15, R599-R560 (2005).

159. Vaknin, A. and Berg, H.C. Osmotic stress mechanically perturbs chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 592-596 (2005).

160. Shimizu, T.S., Delalez, N., Pichler, K. and Berg, H.C. Monitoring bacterial chemotaxis by using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer: absence of feedback from the flagellar motors , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 2093-2097 (2005).

On the motile behavior of bacteria: 2006 - 2010

161. Berg, H.C. Marvels of bacterial behavior. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 150, 428-442 (2006).

162. Vaknin, A. and Berg, H.C. Physical responses of bacterial chemoreceptors. J. Mol. Biol. 366, 1416-1423 (2007).

163. Darnton, N.C. and Berg, H.C. Force-extension measurements on bacterial flagella: triggering polymorphic transformations. Biophys. J. 92, 2230-2236 (2007).

164. Berg, H.C. Navigation on a micron scale. Lect. Notes Phys. 711, 1-13 (2007).

165. Darnton, N.C., Turner, L., Rojevsky, S. and Berg, H.C. On torque and tumbling in swimming Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 189, 1756-1764 (2007).

166. Sourjik, V., Vaknin, A., Shimizu, T.S. and Berg, H.C. In vivo measurement by FRET of pathway activity in bacterial chemotaxis. Meth. Enzymol. 423, 365-391 (2007).

167. Murphy, G.E., Matson, E.G., Leadbetter, J.R., Berg, H.C. and Jensen, G.J. Novel ultrastructures of Treponema primitia and their implications for motility. Mol. Microbiol. 67, 1184-1195 (2008).

168. Chen, B.G., Turner, L. and Berg, H.C. The wetting agent required for swarming in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is not a surfactant. J. Bacteriol. 189, 8750-8753 (2007).

169. Vaknin, A. and Berg, H.C. Direct evidence for coupling between bacterial chemoreceptors. J. Mol. Biol. 382, 573-577 (2008).

170. Berke, A.P., Turner, L., Berg, H.C. and Lauga, E. Hydrodynamic attraction of swimming microorganisms by surfaces. Phys Rev. Lett. 101, 038102 (2008).

171. Blair, K., Turner, L., Winkelman, J., Berg, H.C. and Kearns, D.B. A molecular clutch disables flagella in the Bacillus subtilis biofilm. Science 320, 1636-1638 (2008).

172. Yuan, J. and Berg, H.C. Resurrection of the flagellar rotary motor near zero load. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 1182-1185 (2008).

173. Tu, Y. Shimizu, T.S. and Berg, H.C. Modeling the chemotactic response of Escherichia coli to time-varying stimuli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,105, 14855-14860 (2008).

174. Berg, H.C. Quick guide: Bacterial flagellar motor. Curr. Biol. 18, R689-R691 (2008).

175. Darnton, N.C., and Berg, H.C. Bacterial flagella are firmly anchored. J. Bacteriol. 190, 8223-8224 (2008).

176. Hulme, S.E., DiLuzio, W.R., Shevkoplyas, S.S., Turner, L., Mayer, M., Berg, H.C., and Whitesides, G.M. Using ratchets and sorters to fractionate motile cells of Escherichia coli by length. Lab on a Chip 8, 1888-1895 (2008).

177. Yuan, J., Fahrner, K.A., and Berg, H.C. Switching of the bacterial flagellar motor near zero load. J. Mol. Biol. 390, 394-400 (2009).

178. Yuan, J., and Berg, H.C. Following the behavior of the flagellar rotary motor near zero load. Exp. Mech. 50, 1263-1265 (2009).

179. Berg, H. The gain paradox. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 100, 2-3 (2009).

180. Zhang, R., Turner, L., and Berg, H.C. The upper surface of an Escherichia coli swarm is stationary. Proc. Nat'l Acad. Sci. USA 5, 288-290 (2010).

181. Darnton, N.C., Turner, L., Rojevsky, S., and Berg, H.C. Dynamics of bacterial swarming. Biophys. J., 98, 2082-2090 (2010).

182. Shimizu, T.S., Tu, Y., and Berg, H.C. A modular gradient-sensing network for chemotaxis in Escherichia coli revealed by responses to time-varying stimuli. Mol. Sys. Biol., 6, 382 (2010).

183. Yuan, J., and Berg, H.C. Thermal and solvent-isotope effects on the flagellar rotary motor near zero load. Biophys, J., 98, 2121-2126 (2010).

184. Turner, L., Zhang, R., Darnton, N., and Berg, H.C. Visualization of flagella during bacterial swarming. J. Bacteriol. 192, 3259-3267 (2010).

185. Yuan, J., Fahrner, K.A., Turner, L., and Berg, H.C. Asymmetry in the clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12846-12849 (2010).

On the motile behavior of bacteria: 2011 -

186. Wu, Y., Hosu, B.G., and Berg, H.C. Microbubbles reveal chiral fluid flows in bacterial swarms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 4147-4151 (2011).

187. Wu, Y., and Berg, H.C. A water reservoir maintained by cell growth fuels the spreading of a bacterial swarm. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 4128-4133 (2012).

188. Yuan, J., Branch, R., Hosu, B.G., and Berg, H.C. Adaptation at the output of the chemotaxis signalling pathway. Nature 484, 233-236 (2012).

189. Turner, L., Stern, A.S., and Berg, H.C. Growth of flagellar filaments of Escherichia coli is independent of filament length. J. Bacteriol. 194, 2437-2442 (2012).

190. Berg, H.C. Chemotaxis. In Quantitative Biology: From Molecular to Cellular Systems, ed. Wall, M.E. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2013) pp. 339-361.

191. Lele, P.P., Branch, R.W., Nathan, V.S.J., and Berg, H.C. Mechanism for adaptive remodeling of the bacterial flagellar switch. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (2012), doi:10.1073/pnas.1212327109.

192. Yuan, J., and Berg, H.C. Characterization of the adaptation model of the signaling network in bacterial chemotaxis by measurement of step responses. Biophys. J. 103, L31-L33 (2012).

193. Tu, Y., and Berg, H.C. Tandem adaptation with a common design in Escherichia coli chemotaxis. J. Mol. Biol. 423, 782-788 (2012).

194. Yuan, J., and Berg, H.C. Ultrasensitivity of an adaptive bacterial motor. J. Mol. Biol. 425, 1760-1764 (2013).

195. Stern, A.S., and Berg, H.C. Single-file diffusion of flagellin in flagellar filaments. Biophys. J. 105, 182-184 (2013).

196. Lele, P.P., Hosu, B.G., and Berg, H.C. Dynamics of mechanosensing in the bacterial flagellar motor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 11839-11844 (2013).

197. Berg, H.C. News & Views: Turning failure into function. Nature Physics 9, 460-461 (2013).

198. Branch, R.W., Sayegh, M.N., Shen, C., Nathan, V.S.J., and Berg, H.C. Adaptive remodelling by FliN in the bacterial rotary motor. J. Mol. Biol. 426, 3314-3324 (2014).

199. Ping, L., Wu, Y., Hosu, B.G., Tang. J.X., and Berg, H.C. Osmotic pressure in a bacterial swarm. Biophys. J. 107, 871-878 (2014).

200. Wang, F., Yuan, J., and Berg, H.C. Switching dynamics of the bacterial flagellar motor near zero load. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 15752-15755 (2014).

201. Berg, H., and Blagoev, K. Perspectives on working at the physics-biology interface. Phys. Biol. 11, 050301 (2014).

202. Shrivastava, A., and Berg, H.C. A rotary motor drives Flavobacterium gliding. Current Biol. 25, 338-341 (2015).

203. Shrivastava A., and Berg, H.C. Towards a model for Flavobacterium gliding. Current Opinions in Microbiology, October 28, 93-97 (2015).

204. Lele P.P., Shrivastava A., Roland T.R. and Berg H.C. Response thresholds in bacterial chemotaxis.Science Advances, October, 1 (9) e1500299 (2015).

205. Fahrner, K.A. and Berg, H.C. Mutations that stimulate flhDC expression in Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol. 197 No.19, 3087-3096 (2015).

206. Lele P.P., Roland T.R., Shrivastava A, Chen Y. and Berg H.C. The flagellar motor of Caulobacter crescentus generates more torque when a cell swims backward. Nature Physics epub, November (2015).

207. Lele, P.P., Roland, T., Shrivastava, A., Chen, Y., and Berg, H.C. The flagellar motor of Caulobacter crescentus generates more torque when a cell swims backward. Nature Phys 12: 175-178 (2016).

208. Hosu, B.G., Nathan, V.S.J., and Berg, H.C. Internal and external components of the bacterial flagellar motor rotate as a unit. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 4783-4787(2016).

209. Turner, L., Ping, L., Neubauer, M., and Berg, H.C. Visualizing flagella while tracking bacteria. Biophys. J., (2016) in press.